Epigenetic Orthodontics In Adults Pdf 14
Evidence has emerged across the past few decades that the lifetime risk of developing morbidities like type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease may be influenced by exposures that occur in utero and in childhood. Developmental abnormalities are known to occur at various stages in fetal growth. Epidemiological and mechanistic studies have sought to delineate developmental processes and plausible risk factors influencing pregnancy outcomes and later health. Whether these observations reflect causal processes or are confounded by genetic and social factors remains unclear, although animal (and some human) studies suggest that epigenetic programming events may be involved. Regardless of the causal basis to observations of early-life risk factors and later disease risk, the fact that such associations exist and that they are of a fairly large magnitude justifies further research around this topic. Furthermore, additional information is needed to substantiate public health guidelines on lifestyle behaviors during pregnancy to improve infant health outcomes. Indeed, lifestyle intervention clinical trials in pregnancy are now coming online, where materials and data are being collected that should facilitate understanding of the causal nature of intrauterine exposures related with gestational weight gain, such as elevated maternal blood glucose concentrations. In this review, we provide an overview of these concepts.
Epigenetic Orthodontics In Adults Pdf 14
Given recent advances in epigenetics and that the epigenetic signature is affected by environmental factors, the investigators set out to determine if methylation alterations could help explain why PsA patients respond or fail with TNFi. The researchers performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling on blood samples from 41 PsA patients, using machinery that measures about 480,000 CpG sites per sample and covers 96% of RefSeq genes. A total of 21 patients were considered TNFi responders, of whom 13 were treated with etanercept and 8 with adalimumab; median follow-up duration was 18 months. Twenty patients were considered secondary TNFi failures, of whom 15 were treated with etanercept and 5 with adalimumab; median follow-up duration was 36 months.
It is vitally important for dentistry and medicine to address the development of airway issues that last a lifetime. I primarily work with older children, adolescents and adults in my practice. Children, even very young children receive the biggest benefit from expansion of airways. The DNA/RNA Appliance gives an important second chance to patients who did not properly develop as children. Adults can now be treated without orthognathic surgery, tongue reduction and other invasive procedures.
The DNA Appliances are changing the field or dental orthodontics from cosmetic shifting of teeth in available bone into the field of Epigenetic Orthopedics correcting problems that conventional orthodontics never addressed.
Orthodontics utilizing braces and brackets or plastic aligners as used by Invisalign, Smile Direct and other systems is about moving the teeth in the available bone to create a prettier smile and straighter teeth. Phased orthodontics in children has to a small extent embraced expansion of bone to create more space to straighten the teeth. Airway has only been minimally addressed by most of orthodontics.
Unfortunately, until recently the question of airway and ideal development of the jaws has not been addressed. There have been major changes in the last few hundred years to patterns of orofacial and cranial bone growth. These are negative epigenetic changes due to environmental issues including pollution, changes in how babies are fed and nurtured as new borns ant throughout their early lives. This has led to a massive problem of underdeveloped maxillas, mandiibles and airways.
The underdevelopment of the nasal oropharyngeal airway is the single biggest culprit and creates problems not just in infants, children and adolescents but also problems that last a lifetime. Sleep Apnea can cause issues with insulin resistance, memory loss and dementia, they cause a 300-600% increase in heart attacks and strokes as well as motor vehicle accidents, are implicated in hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Ideally a narrow airway is corrected before 8 years of age and it was thought expansion was limited if not impossible in adolescents and adults. The DNA Appliance has changed all that and expansion is possible throughout your life.
I will present several video testimonials of patients who have utilized the DNA/RNA Appliances. The first one is a patient experiencing major improvement in nasal breathing after just a few months of treatment. When the maxilla is expanded the roof of the mouth widens and high palates correct themselves flattening out. The hard palate is the roof of the mouth but that same bone is also the floor of the nose. With epigenetic expansion the cross section of the nose dramatically increases in both height and width. The expansion of the mouth makes more room for the tongue.
The DNA and RNA Appliance utilize Epigenetic Orthodontics which is the single most exciting advancement in dentistry today. While it is called epigenetic orthodontics a more accurate name would be epigenetic orthopedics because it actually grows and reshapes and idealizes the bone rather than just move the teeth. This is far different than typical orthodontics.
One very special aspect of utilizing the DNA Appliance and Epigenetic Orthodontics is that the appliances are only worn for 14-16 hours per day. This is very different that standard orthodontics with brackets and wire or Invisalign. Most of the wear can be done in your sleep, watching TV or commuting. During the day at work or with friends you can be free of the appliance. This is one of the special features patients love about the DNA Appliance, the convenient fit into your lifestyle.
Typical orthodontics is a four-step process designed to move teeth through the bone. The first step is FORCE that creates PRESSURE (1) that compresses the periodontal ligament and puts pressure on the bone. The second step is INFLAMATION (2) which is associated with pain and discomfort. The third step which is RESORBTION (3) which is breaking down the bone by osteoclasts to create space. The fourth step is CONSOLIDATION (4) where new bone is formed. The process is then repeated after every orthodontic visit when braces are tightened or with each new Invisalign tray.
Relapse is frequently a problem with orthodontics after orthodontists have used fixed braces to straighten crooked teeth. Relapse is the teeth moving back to their original position and relapse is why orthodontists make retainers. The reason for relapse is complex and not well understood. The hours when the appliance is out let the teeth follow natural eruption processes with far lower risks of relapse.
Dr. Shapira has long had a special interest in developmental processes because of his work with sleep apnea in children and adults. Dr Shapira also has over 38 years experience in treating difficult TMJ Disorders, Migraines, headaches and other Chronic Pain. When these processes go are disturbed it changes how people breathe and swallow. Young children are frequently put in expanders to expand their maxilla or upper jaw. This is needed because of negative epigenetic changes caused by environmental allergies, food allergies or disturbed growth from insufficient breast feeding and bottle feeding.
The Phenotype is how are Genes are expressed, the effects of the environment on us. These are the epigenetic changes that can be positive or negative in nature. This can be the difference between a big wide smile that shows all the teeth
The DNA appliance and mRNA appliance protocols can effectively address TMD issues and headaches in both adults and children. Dr Shapira is a leader in the use of the DNA Appliance to finish phase two treatment in TMD patients.
Adipose tissue from obese patients, regardless of the coexistence of OSA, suffers chronic hypoxia due to its poor vascularization, which increases the level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) [9, 10]. Recent studies have suggested that HIF, which is produced in hypoxic situations, activates different epigenetic mechanisms . OSA has also been associated with the presence of systemic inflammation of as-yet unknown origin. This state may be influenced by epigenetic modifications induced by de-oxygenation/re-oxygenation phenomena, in which CIH is crucial [12, 13]. Both morbid obesity (MO) and OSA patients have an increase in several factors associated with endothelial damage triggered by CIH . Epigenetic changes, especially overexpression of certain miRNAs that target the vascular endothelium (Fig. 1), are an intermediary mechanism that may connect CIH with endothelial damage. In OSA patients without MO, our group has identified an increased level of certain miRNAs in circulating exosomes associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk [15, 16]. Interestingly, some of these miRNAs reduced their expression after treatment with nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) . In obese children with OSA, Khalyfa et al. found higher levels of miRNAs from circulating exosomes involved with endothelial dysfunction. Nevertheless, the effect of OSA therapy and weight loss was not evaluated in this study. In addition, no such studies have been performed in obese adults with OSA.
The hypothesis of the EPIMOOSA study is that patients with a morbid obesity (MO) and OSA have a specific inflammatory phenotype and that, hypoxia-induced epigenetic changes act in synergy with the subclinical state of inflammation inherent to morbid obesity to develop this phenotype. If this hypothesis holds to be true, these changes should be reversed with CPAP and bariatric surgery (BS). In addition, we further aimed to identify epigenetic changes among exosomal miRNAs in MO patients with and without OSA and to determine whether CPAP and BS modify their levels.